By Pat Melgares, K-State Research and Extension news service 


Manhattan, KS If gardeners are crying about their onions right now, it’s not because they’re slicing them in their kitchen. But they may soon.


“This is the time of year that onions grow and develop rapidly,” said Kansas State University horticulture expert Ward Upham. “Regular watering – if the soil is dry – and a light fertilization are helpful to maximize growth.”


In soils that tend to be alkaline, Upham suggests using ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) at the rate of ½ cup per 10 feet of row. The number combination refers to the rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contained in the fertilizer.


“You can use lawn fertilizer (such as 29-5-5, 27-3-3, or similar) but only use 1/3 cup per 10 feet of row,” he said. “Make sure the lawn fertilizer does not have a weed preventer or weed killer included. Sprinkle the fertilizer 2-3 inches alongside the row and water in. Do not fertilize after the onions start to bulb.”


Upham said that as onions develop, as much as 2/3 of the bulb remains out of the soil. He said that is normal and there is no need to cover the bulb with soil.




Another garden favorite – tomatoes – could benefit from mulching as long as soils are warm enough and not saturated with water, according to Upham.


“Tomatoes prefer even levels of soil moisture, and mulches provide that by preventing excessive evaporation,” he said.


Mulch also helps to suppress weeds, moderate soil temperatures, and prevent the formation of hard crust on the soil. Crusted soils restrict air movement and slow the water infiltration rate.


Upham said hay and straw mulches are “very popular for tomatoes, but may contain weed or volunteer grain seeds.” Grass clippings can be used as mulch, but should be applied in a thin layer – “only 2-3 inches thick,” Upham said.


“Do not use clippings from lawns that have been treated with weed killer until some time has passed,” he said. “With most types of weed killers, clippings from the fourth mowing after treatment may be used.”


Upham and his colleagues in K-State’s Department of Horticulture and Natural Resources produce a weekly Horticulture Newsletter with tips for maintaining home landscapes. The newsletter is available to view online or can be delivered by email each week.

Interested persons can also send their garden- and yard-related questions to Upham at, or contact your local K-State Research and Extension office.